Facial appearance depends on both the physical and physiological state of the skin. As people move, talk, undergo stress, and change expression, skin appearance is in constant flux. One of the key indicators of these changes is the color of skin. Skin color is determined by scattering and absorption of light within the skin layers, caused mostly by concentrations of two chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin. In this paper we present a real-time dynamic appearance model of skin built from in vivo measurements of melanin and hemoglobin concentrations. We demonstrate an efficient implementation of our method, and show that it adds negligible overhead to existing animation and rendering pipelines. Additionally, we develop a realistic, intuitive, and automatic control for skin color, which we term a skin appearance rig. This rig can easily be coupled with a traditional geometric facial animation rig. We demonstrate our method by augmenting digital facial performance with realistic appearance changes.



    author = {Jorge Jimenez and Timothy Scully and Nuno Barbosa and Craig Donner and Xenxo Alvarez and
              Teresa Vieira and Paul Matts and Verónica Orvalho and Diego Gutierrez and Tim Weyrich},
    title = {A practical appearance model for dynamic facial color},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH Asia)},
    year = {2010},
    volume = {29},
    number = {6},
    pages = {141:1--141:10},
    author = {Jorge Jimenez and Veronica Sundstedt and Diego Gutierrez},
    title = {Screen-space perceptual rendering of human skin},
    journal = {ACM Transactions on Applied Perception},
    volume = {6},
    number = {4},
    year = {2009},
    pages = {23:1--23:15},
    author = {Jorge Jimenez and Diego Gutierrez},
    editor = {Wolfgang Engel},
    title = {GPU Pro: Advanced Rendering Techniques},
    chapter = {Screen-Space Subsurface Scattering},
    publisher = {{AK} Peters Ltd.},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {335--351},
    author = {Jorge Jimenez and David Whelan and Veronica Sundstedt and Diego Gutierrez},
    title = {Real-Time Realistic Skin Translucency},
    journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
    volume = {30},
    number = {4},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {32--41},
    author = {Jorge Jimenez and Jose I. Echevarria and Christopher Oat and Diego Gutierrez},
    editor = {Wolfgang Engel},
    title = {{GPU} Pro 2},
    chapter = {Practical and Realistic Facial Wrinkles Animation},
    publisher = {{AK} Peters Ltd.},
    year = {2011},
    author = {Jorge Jimenez and Károly Zsolnai and Adrian Jarabo and Christian Freude and Thomas Auzinger and
              Xian-Chun Wu and Javier von der Pahlen and Michael Wimmer and Diego Gutierrez},
    title = {Separable Subsurface Scattering},
    journal = {Computer Graphics Forum},
    year = {2015},